try enabling "Editable" in the xpEmitter Editing tab. It should allow the Voronoi Fracture object to recognize the particles as source.
To your second question. The Thinking Particles feature only provides position, speed and lifespan data. Attributes like color need to be set in the TP settings.
I would recommend to use the xpGenerator instead of Thinking particles. If you set the "Scale Using" to "Particle Scale" it should provide all available scale data to the generated clones.