Thanks for your reply Lothar!
This fixed the problem in this scene, however I'm still running into this rendering problem in my original scene.
I've isolated the problem to having something to do with the xpCache and my model. It's a C4D Volume Mesher model with 23313 points. I tried replacing my object with a cube primitive and caching the xpDynamics there and the problem was gone.
I've tried external and internal caches with no difference so simply caching the dynamics simulation is what seems to be interfering with the renderer being able to read the dynamic data.
No matter where in the timeline I start rendering it doesn't start from the beginning instead only renders the exact frame I'm on multiple times.
Here is a stripped down version of my scene with xpCache baked internally to the file. Would love to know if the problem persists with you guys.